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Exploring supplementary education: margins, theories and methods.

Myers, Kevin and Grosvenor, Ian (2011) Exploring supplementary education: margins, theories and methods. History of Education, 40 (4). pp. 501-521. ISSN 0046-760X

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URL of Published Version: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/0046760X.2010.529835

Identification Number/DOI: 10.1080/0046760X.2010.529835

Existing knowledge of supplementary education, that is education organised and run by political, faith or ethnic groups outside of formal schooling, is patchy. This article is an exploration of the histories of supplementary education in the twentieth century. It is organised into three sections.
The article begins by reviewing some existing literature and argues that supplementary education has been a topic of marginal concern for social historians, sociologists and historians of education. This marginal status has often been reflected in the way in which a dominant account of the history of supplementary education has entered the research literature despite a rather selective evidential base. The second section of the article deploys an expansive definition of education, and presents some new historical evidence concerning African Caribbean and Irish supplementary education. A final arguments section reflects on the significance of supplementary education and suggestions some topics for a future research agenda.

Type of Work:Article
Date:July 2011 (Publication)
School/Faculty:Colleges (2008 onwards) > College of Social Sciences
Department:Education and Social Justice

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Ian Grosvenor, Assimilating Identities. Racism and Educational Policy in Post 1945 Britain (London: Lawrence and Wishart,1997).

For a recent argument of this kind see the text of Ofsted Chief Inspector David Bell’s lecture to the Hansard Society in 2005 http://www.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/cei/Citizenship.pdf (last accessed 4 July 2009).

See also ‘Islamic Schools a threat to national identity’, The Times, January 18 2005.

See Ted Cantle, Community Cohesion: A New Framework for Race and Diversity (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2008).

Edward Said, Cultural and Imperialism (London, Vintage edn. 1994).

see for example the website of Birmingham Archives and Heritage Service, http://www.connecting histories.org.uk (last accessed July 14 2010).

For academic analysis of these developments see, for example, Mary Stevens, Andrew Flinn and Elizabeth Shepherd, ‘New Frameworks for community engagement in the archive sector: from handing over to handing on’, International Journal of Heritage Studies, 16, 1&2 (2010): 59-76.

For an example of the political interest in supplementary schools see Andrew Adonis, ‘Supplementary schools: the next steps’ paper given to the Quality and Excellence in Supplementary Education Conference, London, November 30, 2006 http://www.dcsf.gov.uk/speeches/media/documents/supp.doc (last accessed July 2 2009).

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See, for example, the speech in the House of Commons by Labour Member of Parliament Joan Ryan. House of Commons Hansard Debates, 26 February 2008, column 1065.

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Maureen Stone, The Education of the Black Child in Britain: The Myth of Mulitracial Education (Glasgow: Fontana 1981), 148, 173.
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Hilary Arnott, ‘School of the Streets’, Race Today (March 1971) 94-5.

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Valentino A. Jones, We Are Our Own Educators! Josina Machel: From Supplementary to Black Complementary School (London: Karia Press, 1986) 2, 4, 11-12.

Stuart Hall, Chas Critcher, Tony Jefferson, John M. Clarke and Brian Roberts, Policing the Crisis. Mugging, the State and Law and Order (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1978)

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On the Black Students’ Collective Action [Black SAC] see Farrukh Dhondy, ‘Teaching Young Blacks’, Race Today (May/June, 1978), 82.

Gus John, The Black Working-Class Movement in Education and Schooling and the 1985-86 Teachers Dispute (London: Black Parents’ Movement, 1986).

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Hickman, ‘Difference, Boundaries, Community’; Paddy Hillyard, Suspect Community: People’s Experience of the Prevention of Terrorism Acts in Britain. (London: Pluto Press, 1992); Bernadette Hyland, ‘My 70s: West of Ireland, East of Manchester’, North West Labour History, 27 (2002): 43-44.

Mirza and Reay, Spaces and Places of Black Educational Desire, argue that despite the routine nature of these activities ‘education as a site for collective social action is often overlooked in the literature on new social movements’. Sociology, 34 (3): 524.

See ‘Written Statement launching Education White Paper (A Framework for Education), Thatcher Archive, www.margaretthatcher.org.speeches (last accessed July 11 2010).

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Education for all. Committee of Inquiry into the Education of Children from Ethnic Minority Groups (Swann Report) (London: HMSO, 1985). See also Paul Bracey, ‘Teaching for Diversity? Exploring an Irish Dimension in the School History Curriculum since c.1970’, History of Education 35, 6 (2006): 619-635.

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On language classes see ‘News’ Irish Studies in Britain, 11 (1987): 5. On theatre see LMU, AIB, Irish in Britain Representation Group Box 1: An Pobal Eirithe (The Risen People), No.3 (n.d.): 15 and, more experimentally, Mick Wallis, ‘Present Consciousness of a Practical Kind: Structure of Feeling Higher Education Drama’ in Raymond Williams: Politics, Education, ed. W.J. Morgan and P. Preston Letters (London: Palgrave Macmillan revised edn., 1993), 129-162.

Paul Bracey,’Perceptions of the contribution of an Irish Dimension in the English History Curriculum, Educational Review, 62, 2 (2010): 203-213.

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Alan Clinton, ‘One Step Forward for Irish Studies’, Irish Studies in Britain, 11 (1987): 18 reports the foundation of the Irish Studies Centre at the Polytechnic of North London in 1986. The Institute of Irish Studies at the University of Liverpool followed in 1988.

For detailed accounts of the development of multicultural education and anti-racist struggles see: Barry Troyna and Jenny Williams, Racism, Education and the State (London: Croom Helm, 1986) and Barry Troyna and Bruce Carrington, Education, Racism and Reform (London: Routledge, 1990)

See the letters in Irish Studies in Britain, no.7, Spring-Summer 1985 and the revealing article by Bernadette Hyland which suggests a politicised and overtly socialist-feminist identity, ‘Searching for the young Irish rebels, An Pobal Eirithe (The Risen People): the magazine of the Irish in Britain Representation Group, No.2 (n.d., 1988?), p.4.

Imanuel Geiss, The Pan African Movement (London: Methuen, 1974); John La Rose, ‘We did not come alive in Britain’, Race Today (March 1976) 62-65; Peter Fryer, The History of Black People in Britain (London: Pluto Press, 1984); Ron Ramdin, The Making of the Black Working Class in Britain (Aldershot: Gower & Wildwood House, 1987).

Catherine Hall, Civilising Subjects. Metropole and Colony in the English Imagination, 1830-1867 (London: Polity): 334-5

John Belchem, Irish, Catholic and Scouse: The History of the Liverpool-Irish,1800-1939 (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2007): chapter 9 and, more speculatively, D. Lloyd, “The Subaltern in Motion: Subalternity, the Popular, and Irish Working Class History”. Postcolonial Studies 8, 4 (2005): 421-437.

Claims about the attraction of Hubbard’s study technology are in LMA 4462/D/01/311, J, Ramlal, Draft manuscript ‘West Indians’ Alternative Supplementary Education’ (n.d., 1981?): 10. John La Rose’s archive at the George Padmore Institute (GPI) demonstrates a wide range of educational interests. See, for example, GPI, Black Education Movement 4/6/1/1: Reports, Fact Sheets and publications on education and play centres 1956-1971 for La Rose’s undated annotations on an Urban Education Centre Brochure.
Desmond Greaves, Reminiscences of the Connolly Association (London, Connolly Association, 1978).
GPI, London. BEM, 4/7/1/6: correspondence on education issues. La Rose to Mr Chapple, Parliamentary Private Secretary to Edward Short, Minister for Education, no date. Short was Minister of Education 1968-70.
Black Parents Movement, Independent Parent Power Independent Student Power: The Key to change in Education and Schooling (BPM, Publication No2, October 1980), no pagination.
Avtar Brah, ‘Black struggles, equality and education’, Critical Social Policy, 24 (1989): 89.
See, Fred Naylor, Dewsbury: The School above the Pub (London: Claridge Press) 1989;
The sentimental view is typified by Peter Willmott’s and Michael Young’s controversial anthropological study Family and Kinship in East London (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1957) and reiterated in the similarly controversial update of the book, Geoff Dench, Kate Gavron and Michael Young The New East End: Kinship, Race and Conflict (London: Profile, 2006). See also Michael Collins, The Likes of US. A Biography of the White Working Class (London: Granta, 2004).

Keywords:race, learning, diaspora, learning, ethnicity, education, social justice, education and social justice
Subjects:L Education (General)
LA History of education
Institution:University of Birmingham
Copyright Holders:Taylor & Francis, History of Education Society
ID Code:1022
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