Oliver, C and Hall, S and Hales, J and Murphy, G and Watts, D (1998) The treatment of severe self-injurious behaviour by the systematic fading of restraints: Effects on self-injury, self-restraint, adaptive behaviour and behavioural correlates of affect. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 19. pp. 143-165.
Identification Number/DOI: 10.1016/S0891-4222(97)00048-6
Severe self-injurious behavior (SIB) in people with mental retardation is difficult to treat when dangerously frequent or intense responding rules out functional analysis and interventions that permit free responding. This situation is common when restrictive devices, such as straight arm splints, are used. In this study, the effects of introducing flexion into a straight-arm splint, on SIB, self-restraint, adaptive behavior, and behavioral correlates of affect were examined for three individuals with severe mental retardation. Using single-case design methodology, for two individuals self-injury was reduced to zero, while the overall level of restriction was also significantly reduced. From the observed behavioral correlates of affect, there was no evidence of an increase in negative affect with the introduction of the new splint and the fading procedure, but there was evidence of an increase in positive vocalizations. Engagement in activities and social contact were not affected by the introduction of the new splint. The reasons for a decrease in SIB with a corresponding decrease in restriction in the absence of any manipulation of contingencies for SIB are discussed, with particular reference to stimulus control.
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