Jolly, K and Lip, G.Y.H. and Taylor, R.S. and Mant, J.W.F. and Lane, D.A. and Lee, K.W. and Stevens, A.J. (2005) Recruitment of ethnic minority patients to a cardiac rehabilitation trial: The Birmingham Rehabilitation Uptake Maximisation (BRUM) study [ISRCTN72884263]. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 5 (18). pp. 1471-2288. ISSN 1471-2288
URL of Published Version: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2288/5/18
Identification Number/DOI: 10.1186/1471-2288-5-18
Background: Concerns have been raised about low participation rates of people from minority ethnic groups
in clinical trials. However, the evidence is unclear as many studies do not report the ethnicity of participants and
there is insufficient information about the reasons for ineligibility by ethnic group. Where there are data, there
remains the key question as to whether ethnic minorities more likely to be ineligible (e.g. due to language) or
decline to participate. We have addressed these questions in relation to the Birmingham Rehabilitation Uptake
Maximisation (BRUM) study, a randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing a home-based with a hospital-based
cardiac rehabilitation programme in a multi-ethnic population in the UK.
Methods: Analysis of the ethnicity, age and sex of presenting and recruited subjects for a trial of cardiac
rehabilitation in the West-Midlands, UK.
Participants: 1997 patients presenting post-myocardial infarction, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
or coronary artery bypass graft surgery.
Data collected: exclusion rates, reasons for exclusion and reasons for declining to participate in the trial by ethnic
Results: Significantly more patients of South Asian ethnicity were excluded (52% of 'South Asian' v 36% 'White
European' and 36% 'Other', p < 0.001). This difference in eligibility was primarily due to exclusion on the basis of
language (i.e. the inability to speak English or Punjabi). Of those eligible, similar proportions were recruited from
the different ethnic groups (white, South Asian and other). There was a marked difference in eligibility between
people of Indian, Pakistani or Bangladeshi origin.
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